Biodiesel is subject to degradation processes like oil and grease. The oxidative degradation products of vegetable oil esters in biodiesel particularly lead to enhanced sedimentation in blended fuels.
The polarity of biodiesel increases its solvency and facilitates permeation and extraction. Solvation, swelling and/or extraction lead to changes in the physical properties and chemical changes of polymeric materials. It also accelerates the degradation (hydrolysis and oxidation) of these materials with the loss of additives and stabilizers.
The objective of this research was to determine the resistance of frequently used polymeric materials such as ACM, EPDM, FKM, FVMQ, CR, CSM, IIR, HNBR, NBR, PA, PE; POM, PUR, PVC and VMQ in biodiesel and heating oil with 10 %/20 % biodiesel (B10/B20) at 40°C and 70°C. Mass, tensile strength and breaking elongation of the test specimens were determined before and after the exposure for 84 days in the biodiesel heating oil blends. The visual examination of some elastomer test specimens clearly showed the great volume increase until break or partial dissolution. Shore hardness A and D were determined before and after exposure of the test specimens in the biofuels for 42 days.
The elastomers CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, NBR and VMQ were generally not resistant to biodiesel and B10 at 40°C and 70°C. FKM, ACM, HNBR, PA, PE, POM, PVC and PUR showed high compatibility in B10/B20 at 40°C. A lower compatibility was determined for ACM in biodiesel. ACM and HNBR were not resistant in B20 at 70°C.